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Monday, 30 July 2012

Stereochemistry of [n,m] Sigmatropic Rearrangements

Stereochemistry of [n,m] Sigmatropic Rearrangements

Basically, [n,m] sigmatropic rearrangements can proceed through a chair or boat  transition state. Only the chair transition state has been observed experimentally though both are suprafacial and are allowed in 4n+2 electron systems.

Chair and boat transition states in [n,m] sigmatropic rearrangements


Examples for sigmatropic rearrangements with a chair transition state

 Fig.3Cope rearrangement


Fig.4[3,3] Sigmatropic

                        6 Electrons
                        Hückel aromatic

 view animation, 2D Animation of the Cope rearrangement

try copy paste of link below, do not miss out on a beautiful animation


Large substituents similar to their behavior in chair conformations of cyclohexane rings prefer an equatorial configuration in the transition state of [3,3] sigmatropic reactions. Heating S,S-3,4-dimethyl-1,5-hexadiene to approximately 200°C  yields in 90% a product derived from a chair transition state with equatorial methyl groups.  The product arising from a diaxial conformation is formed in only 10% yield. Obviously, the reaction does not proceed through the boat transition state.

Sunday, 29 July 2012

Enantiomeric Ibuprofen via Environmentally Benign Selective Crystallization

 Ibuprofen was developed by the Boots Group, a pharmacy chain in the United Kingdom, in the 1950’s-1960s. It was discovered by Stewart Adams (along with John Nicholson, Andrew RM Dunlop, Jeffrey Bruce Wilson & Colin Burrows). The Boots group originally licensed Ibuprofen to two large drug companies. The first was Whitehall Laboratories (who sold the product as Advil) and the second was Upjohn who used Bristol-Meyers to market their product “Nuprin”. Boots held the patent until 1985 along with the rights to market it until 1986. Afterwards new products entered the market creating multiple new “generic” brands.

Selective crystallization of ibuprofen/lysinate from 1 mol of (R,S)-(racemic) ibuprofen and ≤0.5 mol of (S)-lysine in aqueous ethanol affords either (S)-(+)-ibuprofen/(S)-lysinate or (R)-ibuprofen/(S)-lysinate (in preponderance) depending on the crystallization conditions. The previously unreported temperature selective diastereo-recognition (TSD) provides simple and efficient means to prepare either enantiomer of ibuprofen from (R,S)-ibuprofen utilizing the same commercially available inexpensive resolving agent, (S)-lysine. The unwanted enantiomeric ibuprofen could be recovered from the mother liquor and racemized by a simple, relatively waste-free thermal process. This racemization method when utilized in conjunction with the selective crystallization technology provides a simple, efficient, and eco-friendly means to prepare (S)-(+)-ibuprofen lysinate in an overall essentially quantitative yield. This technology also incorporates the fundamental principle of atom economy (via direct production of the preferred pharmaceutical salt of (S)-lysine). Abstract Image 

Temperature Selective Diastereo-Recognition (TSD):  Enantiomeric Ibuprofen via Environmentally Benign Selective Crystallization

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Sunday, 22 July 2012

Citalopram/Escitalopram Oxalate, Isolation & Synthesis of Novel Impurities, Emcure paper


Citalopram  brand names: CelexaCipramil) is an antidepressantdrug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It has U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to treat major depression, and is prescribed off-label for a number of anxiety conditions.

Escitalopram (trade names NexitoAnxiset-E (India), Lexapro,CipralexSeroplexLexamilLexamEntactLosita(Bangladesh) Reposil (Chile)), is an antidepressant of theselective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of adults and children over 12 years of age with major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. Escitalopram is the (S)-stereoisomer (enantiomer) of the earlier Lundbeck drugcitalopram

Citalopram/Escitalopram Oxalate: Isolation & Synthesis of Novel Impurities

Emcure Pharmaceuticals Ltd, R & D Centre, Pimpri, Pune -411018, India

Abstract Image

During process optimization of Escitalopram oxalate novel impurities, 6 and 7 were observed, which were isolated and characterized, and the proposed structure was confirmed by chemical synthesis. Investigation of the cause of impurities formation improved the yield and purity of the drug product during the bulk API synthesis



is an antimalarial for the treatment of multi-drug resistant strains offalciparum malaria. It is combined with Lumefantrine and sold by Novartis under the brand names Riamet and Co-Artem.

It is a methyl ether derivative of artemisinin, which is a peroxide lactone isolated from theChinese antimalarial plant, Artemisia annua. It is also known as dihydroartemisinin methyl ether, but its correct chemical nomenclature is (+)-(3-alpha,5a-beta,6-beta,8a-beta, 9-alpha,12-beta,12aR)-decahydro-10-methoxy-3,6,9-trimethyl-3,12-epoxy-12H-pyrano(4,3-j)-1,2-benzodioxepin.

Artemether is highly effective against the blood schizonts of both malarial parasites P. falciparum and P. vivax. It is applied in combination with lumefantrine in clinical treatments of malaria
World Health Organization guidelines for the treatment of uncomplicatedfalciparum malaria recommend the use of this artemisinin-based combination therapy, and approved by Swissmedic in December 2008 and recently approved by the United StatesFood and Drug Administration.

Abstract Image


A 70% overall yield from the two-step conversion of naturally or synthetically derived artemisinin to pure β-artemether is obtained. This corresponds to a usage factor of 1.35 kg of artemisinin needed to produce 1 kg of β-artemether, compared to the current industry average of 1.59 kg.

Saturday, 21 July 2012

Kharasch-Sosnovsky Reaction:

Kharasch-Sosnovsky Reaction:
copper catalysed allylic oxidation using an organic peroxide.
reported by M. S. Kharasch and George Sosnovsky in 1958 ((DOIDOI).
In the original publication the reactants are cyclohexene
and t-butyl perbenzoate with cuprous bromide and the
reaction product is cyclohex-1-en-3-yl benzoate:

Mechanism: (review: DOI). The reaction mechanism devised
by Beckwith et al (DOI) contains the following steps:


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Monday, 16 July 2012

[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to transfer an allyl group to the imminium carbon

[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to transfer an allyl group to the imminium carbon
Starting point is to react the secondary amine with the aldehyde to form a cyclic imminium structure. Once generated, this is nicely set up to undergo a [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement to transfer an allyl group to the imminium carbon. The resulting formaldehyde imminium product is then hydrolyzed in the presence of water to afford the product plus an equivalent of formaldehyde

closer inspection, you can see that there is one less carbon in the product than the starting material. Furthermore, there are no reducing agents present, only acid (and presumably water)

Thursday, 12 July 2012


Science Clipart

In a ground-breaking feat of protein engineering, US researchers have designed a synthetic enzyme that catalyses the Diels-Alder reaction - something that has not been seen in nature. The reaction is key to many organic syntheses and suggests that artificial enzymes could soon become part of the synthetic chemist's toolkit.

Catalysed Diels-Alder reaction

The Diels-Alder reaction - diene and dienophile undergo a pericyclic [4 + 2] cycloaddition to form a chiral cyclohexene ring. The image also shows the design target active site, with hydrogen bond acceptor and donor groups activating the diene and dienophile and a complementary binding pocket holding the two substrates in an orientation optimal for catalysis

Vol. 329 no. 5989 pp. 309-313 
DOI: 10.1126/science.1190239

Monday, 9 July 2012

Eugenol -------major volatile constituent of clove essential oil

Eugenol—From the Remote Maluku Islands to the International Market Place: A Review of a Remarkable and Versatile Molecule

Eugenol is a major volatile constituent of clove essential oil obtained through hydrodistillation of mainly Eugenia caryophyllata (=Syzygium aromaticum) buds and leaves. It is a remarkably versatile molecule incorporated as a functional ingredient in numerous products and has found application in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, fragrance, flavour, cosmetic and various other industries.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa

read original article at


Saturday, 7 July 2012

Ruthenium catalyst to carry out a cross coupling of an aryl amine with a phenyl boronate

Abstract Image

Ruthenium-Catalyzed Carbon−Carbon Bond Formation via the Cleavage of an Unreactive Aryl Carbon−Nitrogen Bond in Aniline Derivatives with Organoboronates

Satoshi Ueno, Naoto Chatani, and FumitoshiKakiuchi
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522, Japan, and Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
J. Am. Chem. Soc.2007129 (19), pp 6098–6099
 Ueno, Chatani and Kakiuchi used a ruthenium catalyst to carry out a cross coupling of an aryl amine with a phenyl boronate. What is remarkable is the fact that the transition metal did oxidative addition to an aryl-nitrogen bond


Sunday, 1 July 2012


Source of anticancer agents---Broccoli

Broccoli as a source of anticancer agents

Most of the people are aware of healthy benefits of broccoli but the active constituents which makes broccoli to possess anticancer property may not be well known., The anticancer effect of Selenium (Se)-enriched broccoli will be highlighted according to the work done by researcher from Gunma University, Japan (Abdulah, et al.).

As a member of Se-accumulator Brassica family, broccoli accumulates Se-methylselenocysteine as the major Se compound when it is germinated in Se-enriched media. Therefore, Se-enriched broccoli accumulates two active anticancer agents: sulforaphane and Se-methylselenocysteine. The anticancer property of Sulforaphane, belonging to isothiocyanates and Se-methylselenocysteine has already been reported (Nishikawa, et. al, and Kim et. al. respectively).
Recently, broccoli sprouts have received considerable attention, because they contain ten times more sulforaphane than broccoli florets. Many studies have shown that both cruciferous vegetables and selenium may reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. 
1. Abdulah, R., Faried, A., Kobayashi, K., Yamazaki, C., Suradji, E. W., Ito, K., Suzuki, K., Murakami, M., Kuwano, H., Koyama, H. BMC Cancer2009, 9, 414.
2. Kim, T., Jung, U., Cho, D. Y., Chung, A.-S. Carcinogenesis2001, 22, 4, 559-565.
3. Nishikawa, T., Tsuno, N. H., Tsuchiya, T., Yoneyama, S., Yamada, J., Shuno, Y., Okaji, Y., Tanaka, J., Kitayama, J., Takahashi, K., Nagawa, H. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009, 16, 534–543.